We consider three scenarios for the one-year period spanning 2023:H2 and 2024:H1. The first scenario (“Baseline”) assumes that Europe maintains gas imports from Russia and all other sources at the same average level as in 2022:H2 and that gas consumption in each month is the same as its 2015–2021 average level.4 The second scenario (“Harsh Winter”) is the same as the baseline, except that it assumes that next winter will be historically cold and, as a result, gas consumption in each month reaches its maximum 2015–2021 level. The third scenario (“Adverse Scenario”) is the same as the baseline, except that it assumes that Europe’s imports from non-Russian sources fall back to their 2015–2021 average in each month, while natural gas imports from Russia are the same as in the baseline. Related: How Europe is Decoupling from Russian Energy and Germany Opens Floating Gas Terminal at North Sea Port and War in Ukraine Drives New Surge of U.S. Oil Exports to Europe
- Date Posted:
- August 9, 2023
Only three of the 15 most affluent metro areas in 1949 (San Francisco, New York and Washington) are still in the top 15, two (Buffalo and Cleveland) have fallen into the bottom 15 and four (Toledo, Dayton, Akron and Youngstown) have median incomes low enough to make the bottom 15 but not enough inhabitants to qualify. So there seems to be a lot more persistence at the bottom than the top. There’s also regional persistence, with Southern metros in the majority on the least affluent list in 1949 and now. On a regional level, things weren’t always so static — from 1929 until the 1970s, there was a lot of convergence in the BEA's estimates of state and regional per-capita personal income (that is, average income, as opposed to the median incomes). But they stopped coming together after that, and the Southeast and Southwest were the country’s poorest regions in 2022 just as they were in 1929.